Materials and methods 2.1 Collection and identification of plant materials Fresh and healthy leaves of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. Levels of significance were calculated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post-hoc and Student’s t tests. The browser also provides tracks displaying evide… [ Links ], GENTRY, A. H. Flowering phenology and diversity in tropical Bignoniaceae. In Botucatu, poor occurrence of pollinators may be due to the fact that the study sites were located near natural forests, which may retain the flower visitors more hardly. The Scarlett O'Hara is a prolific climber spreading quickly. Mo. 350 p.         [ Links ], STUCKY, J. M. Forager attraction by sympatric Ipomoea hederacea and I. purpurea (Convolvulaceae) and corresponding forager behavior and energetics. Data obtained in Jaboticabal, São Paulo in southeastern Brazil (Maimoni-Rodella et al., 1982; Maimoni-Rodella, 1991; Maimoni-Rodella & Rodella, 1992) confirmed these characteristics by the study of the pollination ecology of I. cairica, I. grandifolia and Ipomoea nil. 2015). [ Links ], STUCKY, J. M.; BECKMANN, R. L. Pollination biology, self-incompatibility and sterility in Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. F. W. Meyer (Convolvulaceae). As três espécies são melitófilas, apresentando conjuntos de visitantes florais bastante diversificados, embora haja alguma sobreposição entre eles. Some of the lianas in this family can reach very large sizes and cover the crowns of numerous trees. Toxicol in Vitro 21:734–740. Martin (1970) found I. nil to be self-fertile and quotes I. cairica as self-incompatible. Photochem Photobiol 86:1318–1326. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae and plays a critical role in food security after potato and cassava.Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are most important root crop worldwide [].The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. At a lower similarity level, I. cairica in Botucatu joined the Jaboticabal group. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfr237, The Global Cancer Observatory 2019 Colombia 2018. https://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/factsheets/populations/170-colombia-fact-sheets.pdf, accessed 6 February 2019, Truong VD, Mcfeeters RF, Thompson RT, Dean LL, Shofran B (2007) Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States. New York: Academic Press, 1965. p. 147-172. Dried flowers (1 g) were mixed with an ethanol solution (20 ml, 0.5% HCl, 1:1 v/v) and deposited for 5 min in an ultrasound bath (Elmasonic S15H, Singen, Germany). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2015.10.004, Parra C, Soto E, León G, Salas CO, Heinrich M, Echiburú-Chau C (2018) Nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and insolation of scopoletin from Senecio nutans: support of ancestral and new uses. The genetics of colonizing species. Caffeic acid protects the cells from the cytotoxic effect caused by UV-C; its photoprotective activity was evidenced in fibroblasts and epidermoid carcinoma cells. At the opening time, for all species, the stigma was receptive and the anthers were dehisced. In connective tissue, congestion of blood vessels (50%), erythrocyte extravasation (30%), and polymorphonuclear number (54%) were higher in mice treated with Parsol® than in those treated with IHFE. 3.ed. [ Links ], BAKER, H. G. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. [ Links ], SNEATH, P. H. A.; SOKAL, R. R. Numerical taxonomy. 2012; Batiga et al. 1976. p. 151-159. DELTA-BLAST constructs a PSSM using the results of a Conserved Domain Database search and searches a sequence database. In early summer (late May through early June), dikaryotic spores (aeciospores) are formed on pines and subsequently infect the Ipomoea secondary hosts. [ Links ], NEWSTROM, L. E.; FRANKIE, G. W.; BAKER, H. G. A new classification for plant phenology based on flowering patterns in lowland tropical rain forest trees at La Selva, Costa Rica. - 192.99.42.178. Com relação aos visitantes florais, a análise de agrupamento, empregando-se o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, indicou maior similaridade entre diferentes espécies de Ipomoea ocorrentes no mesmo local do que entre populações da mesma espécie em diferentes localidades. AIZEN, M. A. Habitat fragmentation, pollinator decline and plant pollination. Herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity. PSI-BLAST allows the user to build a PSSM (position-specific scoring matrix) using the results of the first BlastP run. Maimoni-Rodella et al. Measurements of floral parts were based on ten flowers from five individuals. Such resource offer patterns are generally associated with pollination by different bee species (Frankie, 1976). Jena: Fischer, 1954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.05.008, Lu TS, Saito N, Yokoi M, Shigihara A, Honda T (1992) Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in the red-purple flowers of Pharbitis nil. Prof. IHFE caused changes in cell growth in the epithelium (Fig.4); multifocal atrophy (30%), hypertrophy (5%), and focal hyperplasia (11%) were observed. Palavras-chave: polinização, abelhas, corda-de-viola. 2018), and vasodilator (Kwon et al. J. Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Mukhtar H (2005) Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-B pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. This investigation aimed to analyze the similarities between these Ipomoea in relation to sets of pollinators in different localities. Keywords: Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet leaves; natural deep eutectic solvents; static headspace gas chromatography … https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2010.00776.x, Takahashi T, Kimura Y, Saito R, Nakajima Y, Ohmiya Y, Yamasaki K, Aiba S (2011) An in vitro test to screen skin sensitizers using a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8. The sample units with the highest similarity were clustered (UPGMA), forming dendrograms in which the clusters were hierarchically arranged, with scales indicating similarity level. 30, 69–79 (2020). He defined this phenological pattern as "cornucopia", which can be applied to the studied Ipomoea, specially I. grandifolia and I. nil. For I. cairica, the "cornucopia" pattern seems to be associated with the "steady state" pattern, following Gentry (1974a), since there was a constant production of few flowers all round the year, and one period of several weeks when the flower production was more intense. IHFE was rotoevaporated and then dried in a VirTis AdVantage Plus tray lyophilizer. et Schult. In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We recognize that our preliminary cytotoxic analysis of IHFE is limited; further studies with accurate and relevant tests should be carried out. [ Links ], CARVALHO, W. A.; ESPÍNDOLA, C. R.; PACCOLA, A. We thank Dr. João M. F. Camargo for the identification of the bees collected in Jaboticabal and Drs. The non-specificity of these three weeds in relation to pollination is advantageous, considering that, at ruderal environments, pollinator availability is unpredictable (Baker, 1965; 1974); this adaptation is frequently associated to plants living in anthropic, disturbed environments (Valentine, 1978), such as the sites studied in this work. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum, 2000. p. 209-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2011.07.026, CAS  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81557-5, de Araujo Leite JC, de Castro TM, Barbosa-Filho JM, de Siqueria-Junior JP, Marques-Santos LP (2015) Photoprotective effect of coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarins in sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells. Peak identification appears in Table 1, Mass spectra of a kaempferol-diglucoside (HCD, 10 eV) and b pelargonidin-sophoroside-glucoside (HCD, 30 eV), obtained by UHPLC-ESI+-Orbitrap-MS. Table 2 presents the linearity and sensitivity of the method used to quantify phenolic compounds by UHPLC-ESI+-Orbitrap-MS. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside, and chlorogenic acid were used as external standards. Efforts to improve breeding of sweetpotato for traits important to small farmers can be accelerated through the use of genomics-assisted (genomics-guided) breeding. Kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, MTT 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, 2-aminophenol, p-formaldehyde, and eosin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA). In general, higher similarity was observed between different plant species in the same locality than between plant populations of the same species in different localities. Reproductive phenology was monitored every week, recording the beginning, peak (when half or more individuals were blooming) and end of the flowering period. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.02.024, Delgado GC, Buril MT, Alves M (2014) Convolvulaceae do Parque Nacional do Catimbau, Pernambuco, Brasil. [ Links ], ENDRESS, P. K. Diversity and evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. Ipomoea grandifolia and I. nil. Ipomoea cairica is a perennial herb with vegetative and sexual reproduction whose pollination biology was studied at Jaboticabal, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil (21º15'22" S, 48º18'58" W, 575 m altitude) by Maimoni-Rodella et al. [ Links ], MAIMONI-RODELLA, R. C. S.; RODELLA, R. A. Biologia floral de Ipomoea acuminata Roem. Ann. A standardized reference value of effective dose 50 in the THP-1/IL-8 assay is not available to estimate the sensitizing effect of plant extracts. In the epidermis, round burn cells were detected, with contracted nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm; the extension of these cells was multifocal and smaller than that of the group without protective substance. https://doi.org/10.1590/S2175-78602014000200008, Article  JRM and EES contributed to the analytical study, supervised the laboratory work, and carried out critical reading and manuscript drafting. Number of flowers/plant was estimated twice a month in 5-10 individuals in 1980 in Jaboticabal. are annual herbs with sexual reproduction only (Lorenzi, 2000). Coumarin derivatives reduced the embryotoxic effects of UV-B radiation in sea urchin gametes and have been considered as possible photoprotectors (de Araujo Leite et al. Botucatu climate is mesothermic, with dry winter and rainy summer, or Koeppen's Cwb (Carvalho et al., 1983). Skin cancer is a malignant tumor disease common in fair-skinned, light-eyed people, with blond hair (Ferlay et al. All procedures were carried out in accordance with Official Mexican Regulation (NOM-062-ZOO-1999). There is a permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from its side effects. The most effective pollinators of I. cairica were Ceratina (Crewella) sp., Ceratina sp. I. nil had the bees D. riparia, Eulaema nigrita, M. segmentaria and one fly (Tabanidae), in Botucatu, and M. segmentaria, T. analis, Diadasia sp. International Science Congress Association 65 matrix of Ipomoea species showing the seed protein characters (0= band absent, 1= band present) is given in table 2. [ Links ], GENTRY, A. H. Co evolutionary patterns in Central American Bignoniaceae. Int J Cancer 113:423–433. Ipomoea cairica is a perennial herb with vegetative and sexual reproduction whose pollination biology was studied at Jaboticabal, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil (21º15'22" S, 48º18'58" W, 575 m altitude) by Maimoni-Rodella et al. 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