Mat. The hydrolysis efficiency was calculated with Eq. The root of the perennial leguminous shrub Sophora flavescens Ait. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04894-9, Gezae Daful, A., and Görgens, J. F. (2017). “A comprehensive review on food waste anaerobic digestion: Research updates and tendencies,” Bioresource Technol. 247, 1069-1076. 3. where LRE is lignin removal efficiency (%), and WLI (g) and WLP (g) are the lignin weight of the SFRs before and after pretreatment, respectively. This might be due to the removal of most of the lignin from biomass by NaOH-heat pretreatment, which improved the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes and avoided the inactivation of cellulase by lignin adsorption. Fig. When the solid-liquid ratio increased from 1:5 to 1:10, hydrolysis efficiency reached the highest value, which was 83.6%. Table 3 lists the functional groups corresponding to different wavenumbers and their modes of vibration (Xu et al. 2015). This genus contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceania, and the Pacific islands. 1. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the concentration of acetic acid in the pretreated wastewater reached 4.40 g/L (data not shown), which was consistent with the results of infrared spectroscopy analysis. Bioproc. “Sophora flavescens Ait. Leaves 20-25 (-30) cm; stipules lanceolate, 6-8 mm, acuminate; leaflets 13-25, elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate, 3-4 (-6) × (0.5-)1.2-2 cm, papery, pilose or glabrescent abaxially, gla­brous adaxially, base cuneate or slightly cordate, apex obtuse or acute. 1789. 苦参 ku shen. : Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine,” J. Ethnopharmacol. 172, 10-29. 4. However, polysaccharides as main components in the root remained unknown. The optimization and mechanism of the best pretreatment method was explored. Res. 781-784, 947-951. Sophora flavescens var. About fifteen of these species have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. Fuel 25(7), 2754-2763. Therefore, aggressive pretreatment is important to remove lignin and separate cellulose and hemicellulose in order to increase the contact between cellulase and cellulose. Eng. After different pretreatment, the cellulose content, solid recovery, and reducing sugar concentration were different. Branchlets and leaflets pilose or glabrescent; legume sparsely hairy. Alibaba Chinese manufacturer supply hot selling matrine 10% You May Like Sophora flavescens is a species of plant in the genus Sophora a genus of the Fabaceae family, that contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatment, acid pretreatment, and alkali pretreatment were applied in the field of lactic acid production from SFRs by fermentation. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions were NaOH concentration of 1.00%, solid-liquid ratio of 1:10, temperature of 80 °C, and pretreatment time of 60 min. Kew. For lignocellulosic substances, the absorbance at wavenumber 3424 cm-1 can be attributed to the stretching vibration of hydroxyl group forming hydrogen bond, and wavenumber 2926 cm-1 is for the C-H stretching vibration of methyl and methylene. China Matrine Agriculture Pesticide, Find details about China Sophora Flavescens Extract, Matrine from Matrine Agriculture Pesticide - Xi′an Natural Field Bio-Technique Co., Ltd. Crop. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2016.12.054, He, X., Fang, J., Huang, L., Wang, J., and Huang, X. Sust. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the reducing sugar concentration of SFRs without pretreatment was 8.70 g/L, and the hydrolysis efficiency was only 33.5%. E. 12(2), 147-151. The hemicellulose in SFRs was mainly composed of xylan, which was calculated based on xylose concentration. Sophora flavescens Extract Market: Introduction Sophora flavescens extract is also known as Ku Shen extract which is widely used in Chinese medicine as an herbal supplement. X-ray diffraction is a common method to analyze the crystallinity of cellulose. DOI: 10.1021/ef200241s, Wang, J., Gao, M., Liu, J., Wang, Q., Wang, C., Yin, Z., and Wu, C. (2017). Package Size: 1 pound Form: Cut / Sliced, not uniform pieces, Lab Tested Dosage: Follow your doctor's instructions on how to use this herb. Pretreatment of Sophora flavescens Residues to Produce Fermentable Sugars for Lactic Acid Production: Optimization and Mechanism Analysis, Ming Gao,a,b Juan Wang,c Xiaoyu Ma,a Na Song,d Wenbin Zhu,a Qunhui Wang,a,b,* and Chuanfu Wu a,b,*. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.07.039, Niu, K., Chen, P., Zhang, X., and Tan, W. (2009). “Catalytic conversion of cellulose-based biomass and glycerol to lactic acid,” J. “Comparison of different pretreatment methods based on residual lignin effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass,” Bioresource Technol. 101(14), 5426-5430. Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium was used for cell growth and inoculum preparation, as previously reported (Zheng et al. 2017). where WI (g) and WP (g) are the weight of the SFRs before and after pretreatment, respectively. The concentration of reducing sugar in the enzymatic hydrolysate was determined, and the hydrolysis efficiency was also calculated. 5. The untreated SFRs samples showed a smooth surface with fine structure and orderly arrangement in microscopy (Fig. The X-ray diffraction pattern of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment is shown in Fig. SEM images of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment. Although the solid recovery after NaOH-heat pretreatment was slightly lower than that of hydrothermal and H2SO4-heat pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis was the highest, reaching 34.7 to 34.8 g/(100 g dry residue). After different pretreatment methods, the solid recovery of SFRs ranged from 68.2% to 85.9%. DOI: 10.1007/s00226-007-0133-x, Vancov, T., and McIntosh, S. (2011). © 2020 NC State University. The solid recovery of SFR after pretreatment was calculated with Eq. Wavenumber 1740 cm-1 is the characteristic peak of hemicellulose and the stretching vibration absorption peak of C=O on acetyl and carboxyl groups of hemicellulose. It may also inhibit the 5-Alpha Reductase enzyme and PDE5 potently, promoting hair growth and erectogenesis. The moisture content of SFRs were 68.4 ± 3.70%; the collected samples of SFRs were mostly round sheets with a diameter of 1 to 7 cm and a thickness of 3 to 6 mm. Corolla white or pale yellow The pretreatment of SFRs was performed in 1% (w/v) NaOH solution with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 (w/v) at 80 °C for 60 min. Fig. Branchlets and leaflets densely brown villous; legume densely hairy. Therefore, in this study, a certain quality of SFRs was pretreated and hydrolyzed; the reducing sugar yield was used to select the best pretreatment method. The crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose can reflect the degree of crystallization when cellulose aggregates, and it is also an important factor affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (Smuga-Kogut et al. 2016).   2, with the concentration of NaOH increasing from 0.2% to 1.0%, the concentration of reducing sugar also increased, and hydrolysis efficiency increased from 67.3% to 83.6%. The main mechanism of H2SO4-heat pretreatment to improve enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was to dissolve hemicellulose, destroy its wrapping and winding of cellulose, thus increasing the contact area between cellulose and cellulase; the phenomenon has been reported by many researchers (Taherzadeh and Karimi 2007; Zheng et al. 2013; Sewsynker-Sukai et al. 2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.070, Zhu, L., O Dwyer, J. P., Chang, V. S., Granda, C. B., and Holtzapple, M. T. (2008). Sophora prostrata ‘Little Baby’ is smaller than the species, but still displays the characteristic divaricating (zigzagging) growth and yellow blooms. Convers. (2017). After hydrothermal pretreatment and H2SO4-heat pretreatment, 11.2 g/L and 19.8 g/L reducing sugars were obtained, and the hydrolysis efficiency was 41.4% and 65.2%, respectively, which were lower than that of NaOH-heat pretreatment. Lactic acid production in open fermentation mode. If hard frosts are … Fig. 2.5 mm. Sophora flavescens or Ku Shen, which in Chinese means “bitter root,” is an herb used in Traditional medicine to treat a wide variety of symptoms, with purported effects on the liver, intestinal tract, and skin. Ca­lyx campanulate, oblique; teeth not obvious, sparsely pubes­cent. 5(A)).   DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.781-784.947, Djukic-Vukovic, A., Lazovic, S., Mladenovic, D., Knezevic-Jugovic, Z., Pejin, J., and Mojovic, L. (2019). Cellulose can be divided into a crystalline region and an amorphous region according to whether there is a tight arrangement of its molecular structure. Flowers many, widely spaced; pedicel slender, ca. Because the functional groups and chemical bonds of cellulose have specific frequencies in infrared spectroscopy, the changes of structure and composition of cellulose before and after pretreatment can be qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. flavescens “Structural features affecting biomass enzymatic digestibility,” Bioresource Technol. 99(9), 3817-3828. “Dilute acid pretreatment and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to ethanol,” Appl. However, when the NaOH concentration continued to increase, the concentration of reducing sugar and hydrolysis efficiency increased slightly. When SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment were used as feedstocks in fermentation, the maximum lactic acid concentration was 33.7 g/L, which was twice that produced by SFRs without pretreatment. Agrophys. 30(1), 83-88. When the pretreatment time continued to increase, the enhancement of the reducing sugar concentration was not notably. The hemicellulose removal efficiency after pretreatment was calculated with Eq. Samples were withdrawn periodically from the fermentation broths for glucose, cellobiose, and lactic acid measurements. The SFRs hydrolysates were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min. (2019). Table 1. Changes of Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Contents of SFRs. Therefore, NaOH-heat pretreatment greatly improved the final fermentation results. S. flavescens is grown in Japan, China and Korea. The best pretreatment method was selected by comparing the structural changes of SFRs, hydrolysis efficiency, and mass flow of the whole process before and after different pretreatment methods. 51978047), and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFC1906302). The cellulose of SFRs can be converted into fermentable sugars by adding cellulase, but hemicellulose and lignin in the structural arrangement form a solid binding layer, which closely encapsulates cellulose and hinders the contact between cellulase and cellulose (Kumar et al. 2009; Chen et al. 2017). If lactic acid could be fermented with renewable raw materials (such as lignocellulose wastes) as feedstock, the cost of lactic acid production could be greatly reduced (Gezae Daful and Görgens 2017; Kasmi et al. 2017; Djukic-Vukovic et al. 2019; Li et al. 2019). Herbs or subshrubs, 1-2 m. Stem striped, pilose when young. Pollut. Chinese Medicinal Herb Seed Collection: Ban-zhi-lian (Skullcap, Barbat); Dan-shen (Sage, Chinese Red); Dang-shen (Codonopsis); Huang-qi (Astragalus); Ku-shen (Sophora flavescens); Ji-xing-zi (Chinese Balsam); Tien-hua-fien (Gourd, Snake); Yi-mu-cao (Motherwort, Chinese) $ 24.95 Add to cart After NaOH-heat pretreatment, these peak positions remained unchanged, indicating that NaOH-heat pretreatment did not destroy the crystalline structure of cellulose, and the typical crystal form (cellulose I) was still shown. According to the X-ray diffraction pattern, the value of CrI can be calculated by Eq. Our previous screening of pre-fractionated extract from SF displayed strong cytotoxic activity against NSCLC cells. The related reagents were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Article submitted: February 6, 2020; Peer review completed: March 14, 2020; Revised version received and accepted; March 27, 2020; Published: April 1, 2020. Therefore, from the point of view of saving energy consumption and improving the pretreatment efficiency of SFRs, the optimum pretreatment conditions for SFR were 1% NaOH concentration, 1:10 solid-liquid ratio, 80 °C temperature, and 60 min pretreatment time. Manage. 158, 315-326. sophora flavescens root extract manufacturer/supplier, China sophora flavescens root extract manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese sophora flavescens root extract manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.031, Qing, Q., Yang, B., and Wyman, C. E. (2010). IPNI. DOI: 10.1021/ie801542g, Kurakake, M., Ooshima, H., Kato, J., and Harano, Y. Technol.   6. 13 mm; keel similar to wings, slightly broader, ca. “Effect and characterization of sodium lignosulfonate on alkali pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of corn stover,” Ind. Niu et al. (2009) found that the smooth and orderly surface of rice straw was damaged by NaOH solution with photocatalysis-assisted method, and the surface area of cellulose was increased, which made enzymatic hydrolysis easier. Only 17.4 g of reducing sugar could be produced after enzymatic hydrolysis of 100 g SFRs without pretreatment, while reducing sugar yield obtained by hydrothermal pretreatment was similar to that of SFRs without pretreatment. DOI: 10.1007/BF03028641, Kumar, P., Barrett, D. M., Delwiche, M. J., and Stroeve, P. (2009). To evaluate the effect of pretreatment, three indicators were defined as follows. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.055, Zheng, Y., Lee, C., Yu, C., Cheng, Y., Zhang, R., Jenkins, B. M., and Vander Gheynst, J. S. (2013). Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton) to trees (Sophora japonica L.). Further, to investigate the effect of the surfactant POESM on the pretreatment of SFRs, the pretreatment experiments were carried out after adding 3% (v/v) POESM under the above three pretreatment conditions. The pretreatment of SFRs was performed in 1% (w/v) NaOH solution with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 (w/v) at 80 °C for 60 min. J. 133, 219-239. The solid part was washed with deionized water until it reached neutral pH, then air-dried and crushed for subsequent determination, analysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis. The root of the perennial leguminous shrub Sophora flavescens Ait. Alkali solution, acid solution, and hydrothermal pretreatment are the three most widely used and mature pretreatment methods. In addition, the pores exposed to the surface could improve the permeability of the material, make the cellulase more easily contact with the cellulose, thereby improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (Vancov and McIntosh 2011; Murciano Martínez et al. 2015). 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. After pretreatment, the pretreated slurry was then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30 min. When the pretreatment temperature was 80 °C, the reducing sugar concentration in the enzymatic hydrolysate reached the maximum, and hydrolysis efficiency decreased when the temperature continued to increase. 5, which indicates the change of cellulose crystallinity of SFRs before and after pretreatment. 5. where I002 denotes the diffraction intensity on 002 the surface, and Iam denotes diffraction intensity in the amorphous region when 2θ = 18°. The SFRs samples for SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis were air-dried at 105 °C and mass to constant, then ground into powder. (2013). Finally, the lactic acid concentration from SFRs with pretreatment and non-pretreatment was compared. Sluiter, A., Hames, B., Ruiz, R., Scarlata, C., Sluiter, J., Templeton, D., and Crocker, D. (2008). Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. Energy Chem. 32, 138-151. Eng. 1 The roots of S. flavescens is commonly used as the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of pruritus, dysentery, trichomonas vaginitis, eczema, and pyogenic infections of the skin. Res. 48(8), 3713-3729. Alibaba Chinese manufacturer supply hot selling matrine 10% You May Like Sophora flavescens is a species of plant in the genus Sophora a genus of the Fabaceae family, that contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands. (2007). Crop. According to the above results, the highest yield of reducing sugar was obtained by NaOH-heat pretreatment. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Sophora flavescens has been used extensively, mainly in combination with other medicinal plants in prescriptions to treat fever, dysentery, hematochezia, jaundice, oliguria, vulvar swelling, asthma, eczema, inflammatory disorders, ulcers and diseases associated with skin burns. Particularly, for SEM analysis, the SFRs powder was sieved though a 1 mm screen; for FTIR and XRD analysis, the SFRs powder was sieved though a 0.074 mm screen. This was because under the conditions of alkali solution and high temperature, the lignin of SFRs was effectively removed, and some hemicellulose was also removed, which made the surface of the sample rough and loose. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.033. “Non-thermal plasma and ultrasound-assisted open lactic acid fermentation of distillery stillage,” Environ. The changes of chemical composition of SFRs before and after pretreatment were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) (Nicolet 6700, Thermo Fisher Scientific). This work was supported by the International Science and Technology Innovation Cooperation Key Project (2016YFE0127800), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant NO. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.10.031, Miller, G. L. (1959). Alkaloids in the root were well known for exhibiting good hepato-protective and anti-HBV effects. “Overall evaluation of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment for enhancement of biomethane production from brewers’ spent grain,” Energ. Herbs or subshrubs, 1-2 m. Stem striped, pilose when young. During the lactic acid fermentation stage, the glucose and cellobiose were consumed rapidly by L. casei in 24 h; the lactic acid concentration increased rapidly in the first 24 h and then slowly. “The effects of nonionic surfactants on the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of recycled newspaper,” Biotechnol. Seeds 1-5, red-brown or purple-brown, long ovoid, slightly com­pressed. For example, the current market price of anhydrous ethanol is 5000 to 6000 RMB/t (Ren et al. 2018; Ma et al. 2019). However, a large amount of waste herb residues are generated in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. Cellulose is a high polymer linked by D-glucose with β-1,4 glycoside bonds. Using these substances is expensive and can contribute to food shortage (Alves De Oliveira et al. 2018). (A) SFRs without NaOH-heat pretreatment as substrate; (B) SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment as substrate. Effects of each experimental conditions on NaOH-heat pretreatment of SFRs. It was previously reported that certain lavandulylated flavanones from Sophora flavescens are β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors; however, based upon their levels within the extract, their inhibitory effects should be higher than expected. Eng. In addition, no matter whether POESM was added in the pretreatment process, the concentration of reducing sugar and hydrolysis efficiency obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis did not change remarkably, which indicated that POESM in the pretreatment had little effect on hydrolysis. Eng. 2012, 428974. Prod. 106, 65-73. DOI: 10.1515/intag-2015-0072, Taherzadeh, M. J., and Karimi, K. (2007). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) could be used to intuitively understand the changes of fiber structure of SFRs before and after pretreatment. The open batch fermentations were conducted anaerobically at 37 °C in an air-bath shaker at 150 rpm with 10% (v/v) inoculum. Lactic acid concentration (33.7 g/L) produced from SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment was twice as high as that of SFRs without pretreatment. This result showed that after dissolving most lignin by NaOH-heat pretreatment, the cellulase could be contacted with the cellulose of SFRs better, resulting in better enzymatic hydrolysis effect, higher sugar production and ultimately increased lactic acid concentration. galegoides X-ray diffraction analysis of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment. Each experiment was performed in triplicate, and the result is presented as mean ± standard deviation. In the enzymatic hydrolysis stage, the final concentration of glucose and cellobiose produced by SFR with NaOH-heat pretreatment were 31.7 g/L and 14.2 g/L, respectively, which were more than twice the sugar concentration of SFRs without NaOH-heat pretreatment. $21.95. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the cellulose content of SFRs increased from 46.6% to 59.4%, and hydrolysis efficiency was 2.3 times higher than that of direct enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the slurry was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min, and the supernatant was analyzed for reducing sugar concentration. As shown in Fig. (2019). The rapid development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry and the enhancement of people’s health awareness has increased the application of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and Chinese patent medicine worldwide. These two functional groups exist not only in cellulose, but also in hemicellulose and lignin. The roots of Sophora flavescens (SF) have been officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and named “Ku Shen”; SF has been used in the treatment of various malignancies, including liver and lung cancer. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.010, Ioelovich, M. (2012). “A review on the current developments in continuous lactic acid fermentations and case studies utilising inexpensive raw materials,” Process Biochem. 79, 1-10. The variations of crystalline components in SFRs were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) (DMAX-rB, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan), and the crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose was calculated by Eq. When SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment were used as feedstocks in fermentation, the maximum lactic acid concentration was 33.7 g/L, which was twice that produced by SFRs without pretreatment. (A) NaOH concentration; (B) Solid-liquid ratio; (C) Temperature; (D) Time. If the solid-liquid ratio continued to increase, hydrolysis efficiency remained basically stable. ( Ku Shen is the characteristic peak of C=O on acetyl and carboxyl groups of hemicellulose and stretching. Aspects, ” Bioresource Technol. 99 ( 9 ), 5941-5951 Chinese Cream powerful Hemorrhoids Ointment Chinese Cream powerful Cream! 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( Shanghai, China an antipyretic, anthelminitic and agent. 2.8 Sophorae Flavescentis Radix ( 苦参, Ku Shen ) is a common method to analyze crystallinity. Sugar concentration and hydrolysis efficiency remained basically stable China ) 苦参, Ku )! The crystallinity of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment J. Ethnopharmacol. 172, 10-29 the weight of pretreatment! Vibration absorption peak of C=O on acetyl and carboxyl groups of hemicellulose and Contents. Der Identität mit einem aus Matrin synthetisch dargestellten Carbinol not advisable to only. Contents of SFRs before and after pretreatment genus have a long history of more than 2,000 years acid and... Tan, W. ( 2009 ) of a sequential alkalic salt and dilute acid pretreatment and non-pretreatment was.... 10.1002/Jctb.2185, Nlewem, K., and lactic acid concentration, and National Research. Finally, the solid recovery of SFR, and Venus, J cellulose NaOH-heat.